Titanium super-capacitors


TiO2 has been long studied as a viable metal hydride absorber producing ferrotitanium, one of the best ferro-alloys, it is expensive and used in low quantities on Earth. However the moon composition is covered in FeTiO2 ilmenite regolith with a mix of other minerals. Titanium on the moon is primarily found in the mineral ilmenite, a compound that contains iron, titanium and oxygen and it covers the lunar surface.

Titanium-rich minerals are more efficient at retaining solar wind particles, such as helium and hydrogen. It is a well-known hydrogen storage material and will be extensively used in the future because hydrogen is emerging as an eco-friendly energy source. Ferrotitanium is an alloy consisting of iron and titanium, with a minimum titanium weight content of 20% and a maximum titanium weight content of 75%.

TiO2 in combination with a light source, provides vast applications primarly in energy and environmental concentrations. Beyond improving solar cells and water electrolysis catalyst, TiO2 can be applied to medical catheter and operating room, cancer treatment, removal of residual pesticides in agriculture, deodorizing hydroponic cultures, air and water purification and disinfection,  offset printing, paints and tiles, and glass tint.  In the past decade, the developments in the area of preparation and application of different titanium dioxide nanostructured (nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers and nanoparticles) and zinc oxide have been tremendous.

PMC will harvest Lunar ilmenite and extract a mix of molten minerals slag and gangue that is cooled into a non-stoichiometric TiH(2-x), titanium metal sponge and treated with hydrogen gas at atmospheric pressure at between 300-500 °C using the waste heat from the SOFC Fuel Cell.

Ti + H2 → TiH2

Absorption of hydrogen is exothermic and rapid, changing the color of the sponge grey to black. The brittle product is ball milled and ground into a powder, which has a composition of TiH1.95.

PMC will produce titanium metal hydride batteries and super capacitors that can store and release kilowatts of energy and fuel on demand.

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